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General Family Law

Paternity vs. Legitimation in Georgia: What’s the Difference?

Tuesday, July 15th, 2014

As Georgia divorce attorneys who help clients with domestic relations matters ranging from uncontested divorces and separate maintenance actions to matters involving child support and child custody, such as paternity and legitimation actions, we are often asked: “What’s the difference between Legitimation and Paternity is Georgia?”

Georgia courts have long made it clear that paternity and legitimation are two distinct legal concepts in Georgia. In fact, the Georgia Court of Appeals makes this point explicitly in its decision in Ghrist v. Fricks et al., 219 Ga. App. 415 (1995). In that decision the court stated that “paternity and legitimation are not the same thing. Biology is not destiny, and a man has no absolute right to the grant of his petition to legitimate a child simply because he is the biological father. Instead we have held time and time again that the court must consider the best interest and welfare of the child before granting a legitimation petition, and that it is not bound by the desires and contentions of the biological parents.” Id.

Put another way, paternity is based on biology in Georgia. Once a man is determined to be the biological father of a child, paternity may be established. With the establishment of paternity also comes the establishment of a father’s financial obligation to the minor child. On the other hand, legitimation is not based on biology alone. In fact, a man may be deemed the biological father of a child, by virtue of a paternity judgment, without being granted any legal child custody or visitation rights. This is so because in Georgia, a father must legitimize his child in order to establish a legal relationship with his child. Only once this legal relationship is established will a father be granted visitation and child custody rights. In essence, paternity equals child support, and legitimation equals child custody and parenting time.

Setting Aside Paternity Judgments in Georgia

Tuesday, July 8th, 2014

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Prior to 2002, when Georgia’s current statutory law regarding setting aside paternity judgments was enacted, it was slightly more difficult to successfully challenge an inaccurate or inappropriate paternity judgment, because the law of challenging paternity judgments was largely based on case law. With the enactment of Georgia’s current statutory law regarding setting aside paternity judgments 2002, those seeking to challenge paternity judgments were given a statutory framework outlining when a paternity judgment may be challenged and how.

 According to Georgia law, in order for a man to successfully challenge a paternity judgment via a motion to set aside a determination of paternity, he must file his motion with the Superior Court in the appropriate county along with the following documents:

(1) An affidavit executed by the movant that the newly discovered evidence has come to movant’s knowledge since the entry of judgment; and

(2) The results from scientifically credible parentage-determination genetic testing, as authorized under Code Section 19-7-46 and administered within 90 days prior to the filing of such motion that finds that there is a 0 percent probability that the male ordered to pay such child support is the father of the child for whom support is required.

O.C.G.A. § 19-7-54(a).

If a man who has been determined to be the legal father of a child, and thus ordered to pay child support, is able to meet the requirements set out above, the presiding court will grant his motion if the court also finds the following to be true:

(1) The genetic test required in paragraph (2) of subsection (a) of this Code section was properly conducted;

(2) The male ordered to pay child support has not adopted the child;

(3) The child was not conceived by artificial insemination while the male ordered to pay child support and the child’s mother were in wedlock;

(4) The male ordered to pay child support did not act to prevent the biological father of the child from asserting his paternal rights with respect to the child; and

(5) The male ordered to pay child support with knowledge that he is not the biological father of the child has not:

(A) Married the mother of the child and voluntarily assumed the parental obligation and duty to pay child support;

(B) Acknowledged his paternity of the child in a sworn statement;

(C) Been named as the child’s biological father on the child’s birth certificate with his consent;

(D) Been required to support the child because of a written voluntary promise;

(E) Received written notice from the Department of Human Resources, any other state agency, or any court directing him to submit to genetic testing which he disregarded;

(F) Signed a voluntary acknowledgment of paternity as provided in Code Section 19-7-46.1; or

(G) Proclaimed himself to be the child’s biological father.

O.C.G.A. § 19-7-54(b).

The above cited law addresses when and how a man may go about challenging a paternity judgment rendered by a court in Georgia. However, when paternity has been established via a voluntarily acknowledged paternity, the means to set aside or obtain relief from an inappropriate paternity determination are different. If you are a man who has been determined to be the legal father of a child, and you believe this determination was made in error, or if you believe you have acknowledged or agreed to a paternity determination in error, contact a member of the Atlanta Divorce Team to discuss the legal options available to set aside the paternity judgment and terminate the associated child support order.

Georgia Health Insurance and Divorce

Tuesday, June 17th, 2014

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Health insurance is a hot topic in our country today.  One benefit to being married is that a spouse and children can be covered under the other spouse’s health insurance policy.  Even if both spouses are employed and have the option of health insurance through their employment, often one spouse will have better health insurance and, thus, the entire family will opt to be covered under that policy. But what happens if the spouses divorce?

If the family were covered under one parent’s employer’s health insurance policy, it would likely be beneficial for that parent to retain the same coverage for himself and the children.   Once the divorce is final, however, the other parent will no longer be able to be covered under that policy and will be responsible for obtaining his/her own insurance.  That parent will have the opportunity to continue coverage under the same policy through COBRA, but that option is often cost prohibitive for many people.  As such, that parent will have to research to find the best health insurance for his/her situation, be it through his/her employer, Obamacare, or otherwise.  In some divorce situations, if only one parent is employed, that parent may agree pursuant to a settlement agreement, or be ordered by the court, to pay for the health insurance for the other parent for a certain period of time.

The parent paying for health insurance for the children after the divorce is eligible for a deduction on his/her child support payments for the amount attributable to health insurance (assuming the parent is contributing an amount in excess of what his/her employer is paying).  Generally, the parents will then equally split any co-pays and uncovered health expenses for the children.

The important thing is to make sure your health insurance does not lapse as a result of your divorce.  If you are covered under your spouse’s policy, begin doing research now to determine what the best health insurance option will be for you post-divorce.



Online Resources for Adoption Leads

Tuesday, June 10th, 2014

Adoption can be a promising time, full of hope about a future addition to a family. However, for many families who wish to adopt, especially those who chose to take the private adoption route, simply finding the child who will hopefully join their family may be more difficult than expected. For this reason, many prospective adoptive families are turning to the internet for help.

According to Denise Bierly, President of the American Academy of Adoption Attorneys,

“The Internet has changed everything about adoption. We will never go back to what it used to be.”

What Bierly means by her statement is that over the past years, the number of prospective adoptive parents who turn to the internet to help them in their search for a child to adopt has seen a substantial increase. Although it is unknown exactly how many of the 677,000 children placed for adoption through private domestic adoptions are places as a result of online resources such as social networking or online adoption resources, a small study conducted in 2012 by Families for Private Adoption suggests that 40% of private adoptions were successfully matched online.

The increase in the number of families turning to the web for adoption resources is likely the result of the increased pervasiveness of social networking as well as the increased competition among hopeful parents due to the growing number of families seeking to adopt and the ever increasing limitations being imposed on international adoptions.

For prospective parents who are investigating the idea of adoption, and for those prospective parents who are currently searching for the special child to join their family, there are several online resources available such as:,,, and It’s My Time Now Georgia. Additionally, many private adoption agencies and adoption consultants are advising clients to take advantage of Facebook, Twitter and Craigslist to advertise their search. One word of caution regarding employing online resources in an adoption campaign: Beware of online scams. Never send money directly when solicited, and never agree to participate in prohibited activity.

Adoption is a very complex process that varies from state, and not every state allows for the advertisement of adoption campaigns. Specifically, in Georgia the use of social media to advertise an adoption campaign may be unlawful under certain circumstances. O.C.G.A. § 19-8-24. According to Georgia law:

“(a) It shall be unlawful for any person, organization, corporation, hospital, or association of any kind whatsoever which has not been established as a child-placing agency by the department to:

(1) Advertise, whether in a periodical, by television, by radio, or by any other public medium or by any private means, including letters, circulars, handbills, and oral statements, that the person, organization, corporation, hospital, or association will adopt children or will arrange for or cause children to be adopted or placed for adoption; or

(2) Directly or indirectly hold out inducements to parents to part with their children.

As used in this subsection, “inducements” shall include any financial assistance, either direct or indirect, from whatever source, except payment or reimbursement of the medical expenses directly related to the mother’s pregnancy and hospitalization for the birth of the child and medical care for the child.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any person to sell, offer to sell, or conspire with another to sell or offer to sell a child for money or anything of value, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.

(c) Any person who violates subsection (a) or (b) of this Code section shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by a fine not to exceed $10,000.00 or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, in the discretion of the court.
(d)(1) Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this Code section shall not apply to communication by private means, including only written letters or oral statements, by an individual seeking to:

(A) Adopt a child or children; or

(B) Place that individual’s child or children for adoption, whether the communication occurs before or after the birth of such child or children.

(2) Paragraph (1) of subsection (a) of this Code section shall not apply to any communication described in paragraph (1) of this subsection which contains any attorney’s name, address, telephone number, or any combination of such information and which requests any attorney named in such communication to be contacted to facilitate the carrying out of the purpose, as described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) of this subsection, of the individual making such personal communication.”


Thus, it is imperative to engage the services of a caring Georgia adoption attorney to aid you in your journey to add a new member to your family to ensure all necessary law and regulation are complied with.




Putative Father Registry: Can I Deny Paternity?

Monday, June 9th, 2014

The simple answer to the question posed above is: Yes, it is possible for you to rescind your acknowledgement or deny paternity even after signing the putative father registry and acknowledging paternity. But, like any other legal issue, especially family law issues, there are exceptions to this general rule and the ability to rescind an acknowledgement rely on the specific circumstances of your case. Now, for the longer answer…

Generally, once you have acknowledged paternity on the putative father registry you may subsequently deny paternity or rescind the acknowledgement at any time before a child support or other order is entered that establishes that you are the father of the child, such as an order of paternity or order of legitimation. If the mother agreed that you were the father of the child and indicated such by signing an acknowledgement of paternity with you, you may rescind your acknowledgement of paternity as long as you do so within 60 days of your initial acknowledgment. Within this time limit, you may rescind your acknowledgment at any time unless a court enters an order finding that you are the father of the child.

Georgia’s law regarding the rescission of paternity acknowledgments is codified in O.C.G.A. § 19-7-46.1. According to Georgia law:

A voluntary acknowledgment of paternity or registration with the putative father registry is subject to the right of any signatory to rescind the acknowledgment prior to the date of the support order, any other order adjudicating paternity, or 60 days from the signing of the agreement, whichever is earliest. Recording such information in the putative father registry shall constitute a legal determination of paternity for purposes of establishing a future order for support, visitation privileges, and other matters under § 19-7-51.

After the 60-day rescission period, the signed voluntary acknowledgment of paternity may be challenged in court only on the basis of fraud, duress, or material mistake of fact, with the burden of proof on the person challenging the acknowledgment. The legal responsibilities of any signatory, including child support obligations, arising from the acknowledgment may not be suspended during the challenge, except for good cause shown.


If, after this 60 day period, you later find that you are not in fact the father of the child all hope is not lost. However, after the time limit is lapsed it will be necessary to contact a Georgia paternity attorney to aid you with the process of rescind your acknowledgment and disestablishing paternity.

Celebrity Divorce Chronicles: Sonya Miller vs. Percy “Master P” Miller

Thursday, June 5th, 2014

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Although news of the Miller vs. Miller divorce is nothing new – Sonya Miller filed for divorce against the rapper back in October 2013 – the recent developments in the couple’s divorce proceedings reveal how extensive assets and the lack of a prenup or premarital agreement can further complicate the divorce process.

According news celebrity news outlets, Yahoo Music and TMZ, in a recent document filed with the court, Sonya Miller, Master P’s estranged wife, claims that the rapper has around $178 million in assets, and is seeking an award of 37%, or around $66 million, of her estranged husband’s fortune. In the document Sonya Miller filed with the court, which is likely similar to Georgia’s Domestic Relations Financial Affidavit, Mrs. Miller listed the artist’s assets as including:

  • 31 real estate properties, including properties in Los Angeles, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Houston, Georgia and Tennessee, with a combined value of $19 million;
  • Various business entities, such as No Limit Records, Master P, Inc. and No Limit Forever, LLC, valued at around $136 million;
  • 13 cars, including Cadillac Escalades, Mercedes, a Rolls-Royce, BMW, and Porsche, among others, totaling around $235,000 in value;
  • Furniture, such as three chandeliers valued at around $300,000 a piece; and,
  • Various items of  jewelry

As mentioned above, of the rapper’s estimated $178 million in assets, Sonya Miller is seeking around $66 million. Because the couple did not have a prenuptial agreement, likely due to the fact that the couple married more than 24 years ago, before Master P began enjoying success as an entertainer. Although the lack of a prenup and the length of the couple’s marriage may not necessarily be beneficial to the rapper, they may turn out to be factors that weigh in Mrs. Miller’s favor as the California court presiding over the divorce matter determines how the couple’s community assets should be divided. The couple’s divorce has been pending since October 2013, and in light of Mrs. Miller’s recent court filings and the amount of assets at stake, there will likely be no resolution to this dissolution in the near future.


Georgia Putative Father Registry

Monday, June 2nd, 2014

What is the putative father registry in Georgia?

In Georgia, the putative father registry is a statewide listing containing information about men who may be the biological father of a child. Georgia’s putative father registry lists the name, address, and social security number of men who have either:

(1) Acknowledged that they are the father of a child in a signed writing called an Acknowledgement of Paternity, or

(2) Registered themselves with the putative father registry to indicate the possibility that they may be the father of a child.

See O.C.G.A. § 19-11-9(d)(1).

Why should a father register with the putative father registry in Georgia?

A man should register with Georgia’s putative father registry if:

  • He believes he may be the father of a child in Georgia
  • The mother of the child is preventing him from having contact with the child
  • He does not know where his child is currently living

It is important for fathers who believe they may be the father of a child, even if paternity has yet to be established via a blood test, to register with the putative father registry, because registering will ensure that father is notified about any adoptions petitions that may have been filed concerning the child. Additionally, registering with the putative father registry will also ensure that the father will receive notice of other court proceedings where his parental rights are subject to termination. To guarantee adequate notice of any legal proceedings involving the child, the putative father should register as soon as he becomes aware that he may be the father of a child, preferably before the child’s birth. See O.C.G.A. § 15-11-83(i)(3).

How does a father register with Georgia’s putative father registry?

In some situations, a putative or alleged father’s name and information will automatically appear on the Registry. For example, a father may be automatically registered if his name appears on the child’s birth certificate. In situations where a father name does not automatically appear on the registry, he must register with the state agency that maintains the registry, the Georgia Department of Human Resources division of Vital Records. As mentioned above, a father may register under one of two categories: 1) a father may claim that he is the father of a child, or 2) a father may claim that he is possible the father of a child.

Fathers who have not been automatically registered may find a putative rather registry registration form at their county’s Vital Records Registrar’s Office, Health Department, or probate court office. Additionally, the form may be obtained online from the Department of Human Resources, Division of Vital Records. If a father has already registered with the putative father registry, but needs to update information such as his address, he may mail or fax a letter to the address below. In the letter the father should include his complete name, Social Security number, old information as it was originally entered in the Registry, and the new information as it should be shown in the Registry.

Putative Father Registry
Vital Records
2600 Skyland Drive NE
Atlanta, GA 30319-3640
FAX (404) 679-4730

Georgia Adoption Facts: Part II

Wednesday, May 28th, 2014

As a follow-up to our first segment, below are several more facts regarding the adoption process in Georgia. Hopefully these facts will arm you with the knowledge necessary to begin an effective adoption campaign that will ultimately result in a wonderful new addition to your family.

A home investigation will likely be necessary

Prospective adoptive parents in Georgia will likely have to undergo a home investigation or home study if the planned adoption is an agency adoption (the child is being placed with the family via an adoption agency) or a third party adoption (the prospective adoptive parents are not related to the child, and the prospective adoptive parent is not the step parent of the child).

Generally, home studies are conducted by the Division of Family and Children Services or a private adoption agency before the agency places a child with a prospective adoptive family. Home studies involve someone from the public or private agency visiting the prospective adoptive parent’s home to ensure everything attested to in the adoption petition was accurate and that home is suitable for children. Additionally, criminal background checks are performed on the prospective parents.  Basically, the purpose of the home study is to ensure that the environment the child will be brought into is healthy and conducive to the proper development of a child.

Payments or gifts to biological parents are prohibited

It is against the law for prospective adoptive parents to pay the pay the biological parents for the adoption. This prohibition not only includes monetary payment, but also prohibits adoptive parents from giving biological parents valuable gifts in exchange for the adoption.

It may be necessary for the adoptive parents to go to court

Generally the Georgia adoption process culminates in a final hearing where the adoptive parents, along with their attorney and the child to be adopted appear before the presiding judge. The biological parents need not appear in most cases. During this hearing, the court may wish to hear testimony from the adoptive parents and the child concerning the adoption. Once the hearing is complete and the court is satisfied the adoption is in the best interest of the child, the court will issue and order granting the adoption.

Adoptions many be denied

As with any other family law matter, the judge makes the ultimate decision whether to grant or deny the petition for adoption. A court may deny an adoption for one of the following reasons:

a) The adoption would not be in the child’s best interests;

b) The legal parents have not voluntarily agreed to give up their rights; or

c) There is not a good reason involuntarily terminate the biological parent’s parental rights.

Adoption records are private

Adoption records are generally closed to the public. However, an individual who wishes to find out about his or her birth family, adopted siblings, or a child he or she placed for adoption may be able to view adoption the records in certain situations. Those wishing to obtain such information should contact the Georgia Adoption Reunion Registry.



Signing the Birth Certificate is Not Enough

Tuesday, May 27th, 2014

As Atlanta divorce attorneys, we often hear one common misnomer repeated over and over again by biological fathers upon being asked whether a legal relationship has been established between them and their biological child:

“Of course! I signed the birth certificate.”

As these fathers soon discover, signing the birth certificate is simply not enough to establish a legal relationship between themselves and their biological child. In order for a legal relationship between a biological father and his child to be established, that father must seek to legitimate his child.

Although signing the birth certificate may be viewed as an indicia of paternity, establishing that a father is the biological father of a child is not enough to establish a legal relationship between father and child. According to Georgia law, if a child is born to two parents who are not married, the biological mother is the only parent entitled to custody of the child, unless the father has gone through the steps necessary to legitimate the child. O.C.G.A. § 19-7-25. This is true even if the father has signed the birth certificate or paternity has been established by another means. What this means practically is that even though a father has signed the child’s birth certificate, indicating paternity, that father has no legal right to visitation or custody of that child unless and until the father goes through the legal process to legitimate the child.



Georgia Adoption Facts: Part 1

Wednesday, May 21st, 2014

The adoption process in Georgia is complex and may seem overwhelming and intimidating at first impression. However, armed with the right information and with the help of a skilled Georgia family law attorney, the road to adding a new member to your family will be less daunting. Below is part one of our two part series addressing adoption in Georgia. Listed below are several facts regarding the adoption process in Georgia and how you can begin the process of growing your family. For more adoption facts, see our second segment which is soon to come or see our article entitled “Adoptions,” found on our Atlanta Divorce Team site.

Definition of adoption

Adoption is a legal process that results in a court order declaring one person (generally a minor) to be the legal child of the adoptive parent or parents. When an adoption is finalized, the birth parents have no legal rights to the child, are no longer responsible for the child and no longer have an obligation to support the child. In essence, the child becomes a legal stranger to his or her biological family. O.C.G.A. § 19-8-1 Et. Seq.

Length of adoption process

Like any other Georgia domestic relations matter, such as divorce or child custody proceedings, the length of the adoption process varies depending on the specific circumstances of each case. However, Georgia law mandates that in cases where the adoption proceeding is uncontested, uncontested adoption petitions must be heard by a court within 120 day after the petition is filed. O.C.G.A. § 19-8-14. There are some circumstances that may delay the hearing of an uncontested adoption, such as errors in certain documents presented by the petitioner. This is why it is imperative to engage the services of a Georgia family law attorney to prepare and file the adoption petition, to ensure the process goes as smoothly as possible.

Six Types of Adoption

In Georgia, there are six types of adoption:

(1) Public or private agency adoptions: These adoptions occur when a private adoption agency or the State, via the Georgia Division of Family and Children Services, places the child with the adoptive parents.

(2) Adoptions by third parties: These adoptions occur when a third party, meaning someone other than a relative or step parent, adopts the child.

(3) Stepparent adoptions: When a stepparent adopts the child.

(4) Relative adoptions: These adoptions occur when a grandparent, great-grandparent, aunt, uncle, great aunt, great uncle or a sibling of the child adopts the child.

(5) Adult adoptions: When the person to be is adopted is over 18.

(6) Adoptions by foreign decree: These adoptions occur when the child has already been adopted in another country via a decree of adoption in that country. In order for the adoptive parents to return with the child to the U.S., the child must have a valid visa.

Who do I contact to adopt a child?

Those interested in foster care or public agency adoption should contact the Division of Family and Children Services. For those interested in private agency adoption, visiting the Facility Location and Information Guide provided by the Georgia Department of Human Services or the Georgia Association of Licensed Adoption Agencies (GALAA) websites are likely the best ways to find licensed private adoption agencies in Georgia. Finally, those seeking to begin the process for a third party, relative, step parent or adult adoption should seek the assistance of an Atlanta adoption attorney.

Conditions that must be met to adopt

To adopt a child, the prospective adoptive parents must meet the following conditions:

(1) Must have lived in Georgia for at least 6 months before filing the petition;

(2) Must be at least 10 years older than the child;

(3) Must be at least 25 years old unless married and living with spouse;

(4) If married, must adopt with spouse (unless the prospective adoptive parent is the child’s stepparent); and

(5) Must have the financial resources, health and mental ability to take care of the child.

O.C.G.A. §19-8-3.

Children who may be adopted

A child may be adopted if one of the following conditions are met:

(a) the living parents or guardians voluntarily surrender all legal rights to the child to a licensed adoption agency or directly to the prospective adoptive parents in writing; (b) the child has been abandoned or has no living parents; or (c) the rights of the biological parents have been involuntarily terminated through a court proceeding.

Child’s consent to adoption may be necessary

A child’s consent to the adoption is only necessary if the child is 14 years of age or older. The child’s consent must be in writing, and the petitioner must prove to the court the child consents to the adoption. Generally, this proof of consent involves the child telling the court, upon being questioned, that he or she consents to the adoption. See O.C.G.A. § 19-8-4.

Parental consent to adoption is not always necessary 

In cases where the biological parent’s parental rights have been terminated in order to foster the best interests of the child, parental consent to the adoption is not necessary.

Where to file a Petition for Adoption

Petitions for Adoption may be filed in the Superior Court in the county where the petitioning party (the party seeking the adoption) lives. Additionally, under certain circumstances the petition may also be filed in the county where the child lives or where the adoption agency is located.