Georgia is an equitable distribution or equitable division state, not a community property state. This means that upon divorce a couple’s marital property is divided equitable or fairly between the parties. Marital property does not simply include marital assets, such as the marital house, cars and bank accounts, but marital property also includes marital debts, like credit card debt and home loans. With that being said, determining how to divide an account that may be simultaneously seen as both an asset and a debt may be extremely difficult.
When it comes to dividing 401(k) or other qualified retirement accounts that have outstanding loans against them, many parties are tempted to simply ignore the loan and proceed to divide or retain the retirement account as if there was no outstanding debt associated with it. This is a mistake. Failing to understand the impact of 401(k) loans on equitable division may result in both parties, especially the employee-spouse, suffering unintended financial hardship due to this mistake. For example:
Wife and Husband seek a divorce. The assets the couple must divide include a 401(k) held in Wife’s name. Wife has contributed $50,000 to the retirement account, but there is currently a $20,000 loan against the account. In the divorce, Husband and Wife agree to equally divide the retirement account. Upon their divorce, they have a QDRO prepared that reflects this agreement. The loan is not accounted for. Husband receives his $25,000 portion. However, Wife is only left with $5,000. Since the outstanding loan was not addressed, Wife is only left with the value of the retirement account, minus the loan. Additionally, she must ensure the loan is repaid to avoid penalties.
Although many couples intentionally choose to have one spouse bear the entire burden of a 401(k) loan, this is not the only option. In fact, there are several ways a property settlement could be structured to ensure both parties bear some responsibility for the outstanding loan, especially if the loan was used for the benefit of both spouses.
Using the above example, if the property agreement and QDRO addressed the loan, Husband’s portion could have been reduced by $10,000, making him accountable for half of the outstanding loan, instead of leaving Wife to bear the entire burden of the loan herself. Because there are some many intricacies associated with Georgia divorce and equitable division, it is absolutely necessary to engage the services of an experienced Atlanta divorce team who understand the complexities of Georgia property division and who have the financial know how to ensure a fair property division in divorce.